PHES and the Z scores of the tests

On line tool for the calculation of the Italian standardization of PHES 1 and the Z scores of the tests

  1. Symbol Digit test (SDT)2

  2. Digit Symbol test (DST)1

  3. Line trait test (LTT) 1

  4. Serial dotting test (SD)1

  5. Trial making A test (TMT-A) 1

  6. Trail making B test (TMT-B) 1

  7. Trial making B test, geometrical version (TMT-G)2


Download of the Italian forms for the above mentioned tests, to be used with the published Italian standardizations1, 2. For the LTT, also the form to be printed on a transparent sheet for LTT evaluation is downloadable.



Reference List


1. Amodio P, Campagna F, Olianas S, Iannizzi P, Mapelli D, Penzo M, Angeli P, Gatta A. Detection of minimal hepatic encephalopathy: normalization and optimization of the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score. A neuropsychological and quantified EEG study. J Hepatol 2008;49:346-353.

2. Amodio P, Wenin H, Del PF, Mapelli D, Montagnese S, Pellegrini A, Musto C, Gatta A, Umilta C. Variability of trail making test, symbol digit test and line trait test in normal people. A normative study taking into account age-dependent decline and sociobiological variables. Aging Clin Exp Res 2002;14:117-131.